What architecture means at Collective Office and how we go about it. Architecture provides solutions that deal with site, structure, building envelope and programmatic use. Our experience and expertise with commercial project delivery provides another layer of depth and analysis for our Strategy program, during the analysis of future markets, we take into account architectural programmatic and relevancy for site selection.
1. Programming. Architectural programming is the research and decision-making process that identifies the scope of work for the architect's basic services. The identification of a clear scope of work, approved by the client, accomplishes the following: The client is committed to a set of requirements within budget; The design team focuses its efforts on meeting the criteria determined by the programming process; A benchmark is established against which future changes can be measured, providing the architect with a basis for additional services charges if the client's priorities change after the design has begun.
2. Schematic Design Services. During the first phase—schematic design—an architect consults with the owner to determine project goals and requirements. Often this determines the program for the project. The program, or architectural program, is the term used to define the required functions of the project. It should include estimated square footage of each usage type and any other elements that achieve the project goals. During schematic design, an architect commonly develops study drawings, documents, or other media that illustrate the concepts of the design and include spatial relationships, scale, and form for the owner to review. Schematic design also is the research phase of the project, when zoning requirements or jurisdictional restrictions are discovered and addressed. This phase produces a final schematic design, to which the owner agrees after consultation and discussions with the architect. Costs are estimated based on overall project volume. The design then moves forward to the design development phase.
3. Design Development Phase Services. Design development (DD) services use the initial design documents from the schematic phase and take them one step further. This phase lays out mechanical, electrical, plumbing, structural, and architectural details. Typically referred to as DD, this phase results in drawings that often specify design elements such as material types and location of windows and doors. The level of detail provided in the DD phase is determined by the owner’s request and the project requirements. The DD phase often ends with a formal presentation to, and approval by, the owner.
4. Construction Document Phase Services. The next phase is construction documents (CDs). Once the owner and architect are satisfied with the documents produced during DD, the architect moves forward and produces drawings with greater detail. These drawings typically include specifications for construction details and materials. Once CDs are satisfactorily produced, the architect sends them to contractors for pricing or bidding, if part of the contract. The level of detail in CDs may vary depending on the owner’s preference. If the CD set is not 100-percent complete, this is noted on the CD set when it is sent out for bid. This phase results in the contractors’ final estimate of project costs. To learn more about the most common ways owners select a contractor, see Best Practice 05.03.01, “Qualifications-Based vs. Low-Bid Contractor Selection.”
5. Bid or Negotiation Phase Services. The first step of this phase is preparation of the bid documents to go out to potential contractors for pricing. The bid document set often includes an advertisement for bids, instructions to bidders, the bid form, bid documents, the owner-contractor agreement, labor and material payment bond, and any other sections necessary for successful price bids. For some projects that have unique aspects or complex requirements, the architect and owner elect to have a pre-bid meeting for potential contractors. After bid sets are distributed, both the owner and architect wait for bids to come in. The owner, with the help of the architect, evaluate the bids and select a winning bid. Any negotiation with the bidder of price or project scope, if necessary, should be done before the contract for construction is signed. The final step is to award the contract to the selected bidder with a formal letter of intent to allow construction to begin.
6. Construction Phase Services. Contract administration (CA) services are rendered at the owner’s discretion and are outlined in the owner-architect construction agreement. Different owner-architect-contractor agreements require different levels of services on the architect’s part. CA services begin with the initial contract for construction and terminate when the final certificate of payment is issued. The architect’s core responsibility during this phase is to help the contractor to build the project as specified in the CDs as approved by the owner. Questions may arise on site that require the architect to develop architectural sketches: drawings issued after construction documents have been released that offer additional clarification to finish the project properly. Different situations may require the architect to issue a Change in Services to complete the project.